In the last article, we discussed creating a more innovative educational product. We defined that we need a route with a clear understanding of the starting point, prescribed goals, and agreed-upon checkpoints.
We have also talked about Bloom’s Taxonomy and its three areas: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
And in this article we will:
- talk about 6 levels of the cognitive sphere;
- write an example of how to set goals at each level;
- analyze the keywords and tools for practice and work out the goal level by level.
So, the cognitive domain is broken into the six levels of objectives listed below.
The first level is to Know
Remembering and replaying the previously learned information.
Examples: grammatical rules and formulas, terms and phrases, basic concepts and principles reproduction.
Keywords: define, identify, describe, recognize, tell, explain, recite, memorize, illustrate, quote, state, match, recognize, select, examine, locate, recite, enumerate, record, list, quote, label.
Activities: to memorize a poem or wordlist, to remember grammar rules and formulas.
Tools: flashcards, underlining and highlighting in a book, reading, repetition.
The second level is to Understand
Understanding the meaning, translation, interpretation of instruction or problem.
Examples: interpretation of material, diagrams, graphs in your own words, a transformation of verbal material into sentences, texts, audio, video. Translation from one “language” to “another”.
Keywords: summarize, interpret, classify, compare, contrast, infer, relate, extract, paraphrase, cite, discuss, distinguish, delineate, extend, predict, indicate, translate, inquire, associate, explore, convert.
Activities: to organize the animal kingdom based on a given framework, to illustrate the difference between a rectangle and square, to summarize the plot of a simple story.
Tools: creating analogies or metaphors, participate in collaborative learning, take notes, tell related stories, search the web.
The third level is to Apply
Ability to use the studied material in specific conditions. It is the application of the knowledge gained in the classroom into practice.
Examples: manually calculate the employee’s vacation time.
Keywords: solve, change, relate, complete, use, sketch, teach, articulate, discover, Transfer, show, demonstrate, Involve, dramatize, produce, report, act, respond, administer, actuate, prepare, manipulate.
Activities: to use a formula to solve a problem, to select a design to meet a purpose, to reconstruct the passage of a new law through a given government/system.
Tools: collaborative learning, new process creation, blog, practice.
The fourth level is to Analyze
Ability to divide a material or concept into components and structure, understanding the difference between them.
Examples: recognizing logical errors and omissions in reasoning, assessing the significance of information and data.
Keywords: contrast, connect, relate, devise, correlate, illustrate, distill, conclude, categorize, take apart, problem-solve, differentiate, deduce, conclude, devise, subdivide, calculate, order, adapt
Activities: to identify the ‘parts of’ democracy, to explain how the steps of the scientific process work together, to identify why something doesn’t work.
Tools: creating tables, joint analysis of mistakes made, holding sessions in retrospect.
The fifth level is to Evaluate
Ability to evaluate and make a judgment about the value of an idea or material.
Examples: choose the most effective solution, evaluate the compliance of conclusions with the available data, evaluate the significance of a particular product of the activity, based on internal or external criteria.
Keywords: criticize, reframe, judge, defend, appraise, value, prioritize plan, grade, reframe, revise, refine, grade, argue, support, evolve, decide, re-design, pivot.
Activities: to make a judgment regarding an ethical dilemma, to interpret the significance of a given law of physics, to illustrate the relative value of technological innovation in a specific setting — a tool that helps recover topsoil farming, for example.
Tools: creation and analysis of comparison tables, joint analysis, and evaluation of analytical data.
The sixth and final level is to Create
Ability to combine elements, creating an integrated system, choose two unrelated parts, and create something new (action plan, scheme).
Examples: write a manual or a creative essay, propose a plan of action to solve a problem in a certain situation.
Keywords: design, modify, role-play, develop, rewrite, pivot, modify, collaborate, invent, write, formulate, invent, imagine.
Activities: to design a new solution to an ‘old’ problem that honors/acknowledges the previous failures, to delete the least useful arguments in a persuasive essay, to write a poem based on a given theme and tone.
Tools: write an essay, come up with a new model.
Knowing how each level of the cognitive sphere works, let’s apply this knowledge to work with a real request:
|The productivity of a team of young managers is 50% out of a possible 80%. This is due to the vague setting of goals and objectives for yourself and your department.||Learn to set tasks, manage their progress and deadlines using one or two tools.|
As a possible solution, we choose the well-known method of setting goals – SMART.
Let’s divide the learning process according to six levels of taxonomy:
|– use flashcards to tell student managers about the acronym and meaning of each item|
|– disassemble each element and how it works|
|– in groups, rewrite the OKRs for the member department using the SMART goal-setting method|
|– discuss the results of each group together by going through each of the elements again|
|– talk about how the goal-setting method is applicable in the OKR system and the likelihood of its use in all departments of the company|
|– using the SMART goal-setting method, write with each student new goals and OKRs of the department for the coming quarter|
Consider these six categories as degrees of difficulty. We recommend starting with knowledge, moving on to understanding, and so on.
And remember, #ImpactEducation starts with a clear plan, structure, and route!